The origin of water on earth

Water is the basis of all life on earth, but where did it come from and how did it accumulate whole oceans of? Science has no simple, clear answer to this question. Some versions are more realistic, others less so, but the ultimate answer to the question, “How did water appear??”Not yet.

Earth is a unique planet with oceans of liquid water. Она достаточно далека от Солнца, что позволяет воде не испаряться, но при этом достаточно близко к Солнцу, чтобы вода не замерзала. This uniqueness is what made the spread of life on the surface of our planet possible.

How much water is on the earth?

even though the oceans cover 71% of the earth’s surface and contain 1.4 × 1021 kilograms of water, oceanic waters represent only 0.023% of the earth’s mass. There is also another 0.5 × 1021 kg of water in glaciers, rivers, lakes, underground reservoirs, as well as in the atmosphere. Significant quantities of water are also stored in the Earth’s crust, mantle, and core, where water is not in a liquid molecular state, but is bound in crystalline hydrates and other compounds. It is not yet possible to estimate the actual water content of the Earth’s crust, but the approximate content is equal to the three world oceans.

How did water appear on Earth??

The earth could not have been originally formed with existing oceans of water because the solar system was too hot when the earth formed. Соответственно, вода попала на Землю из космоса. Modern research suggests that water most likely came to Earth with ice planetesimals, which are similar to modern asteroids on the outer part of the asteroid belt.

Geological evidence from rock studies currently indicates that water was on Earth 3.8 billion years ago, or 4.28 billion years ago . no research confirming an earlier existence of the oceans does not yet exist. It is important to note that the theoretical justification that this was indeed the “first” water on Earth is the fact that about 4.5 billion years ago the Moon was forming, which was formed by the collision of a large object with the Earth.

Where Did Earth’s Water Come From?

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Water has a rather low condensation temperature (transition from vapor to liquid state), the Earth was very hot at the beginning of its formation, so water could not stay on it. At the same time, in regions farther away from the Sun, water may have condensed to form icy planetesimals. Therefore, the cosmic origin of water on Earth is the most scientifically valid assumption. This theory suggests that comets, transneptunian objects, or meteoroids containing water collided with Earth and brought water to it.

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One method that helps researchers study this complex issue is the ratio of the number of atoms of ordinary hydrogen, and the isotopes, deuterium and protium. The ratio of atoms of ordinary hydrogen, deuterium, and protium suggests that asteroids were most likely the source. Although measurements of isotope concentrations in comet and transneptunnel objects have had little overlap with Earth’s water.

As for the mechanisms of water accumulation, scientists have not yet given a definitive answer to this question. There are a number of hypotheses, which we will list below.

One theory holds that water began accumulating on Earth about 4.5 billion years ago, when the Earth was only 60 to 90 percent of its current mass, and has been holding on to the planet all this time. This assumption is supported by the similarity of the isotopic composition of water and the oldest carbonaceous meteorites, although other studies suggest that the top layer of the Earth has different isotopic compositions. This suggests that the inside and outside of the Earth have different origins.

Accordingly, the second theory implies that water was formed after the “lunar impact,” that is, later than 4.5 billion years ago, due to the fact that the materials brought to the planet were very “watery”.

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A third hypothesis suggests that Earth got its water from a lunar-forming planetary collision.

All three theories have a right to life, and may also overlap with each other in explaining the appearance of water on Earth.

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